OPEC , OPEC nedir , OPEC Ülkeleri

OPEC nedir?

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries kelimelerinin baş harflerinden oluşan OPEC sözcüğü, kısaca petrol ihraç eden ülkeler organizasyonunu betimlemek için kullanılır. OPEC` in kuruluş amaçlarından en önemlisi dünyada petrol fiyatlarını stabil hale getirmektir. 11 gelişmekte olan ülkenin katılımı ile oluşturulan organizasyonun üyeleri aşağıda verilmektedir :

Cezayir , Kuveyt , Suudi Arabistan , Endonezya , Libya , Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri , İran , Nijerya , Venezuella , Irak , Katar

OPEC sepet fiyatı ne demektir?

OPEC sepet fiyatı petrol ihraç eden ülkeler organizasyonuna dahil ülkelerin uyguladığı fiyatlandırma mekanizması ile belirlenmiş ortalama fiyattır. Ortalama petrol fiyatı belirlenirken yedi farklı referans petrolün ortalaması kullanılmaktadır. Referans petrollerden altısı OPEC üyeleri tarafından üretilirken, yedincisi ise (Istmus) OPEC üyesi olmayan Meksika tarafından üretilmektedir. Referans petroller aşağıda gösterilmektedir :

Arabian Light (Arap hafif petrolü), Suudi Arabistan
Dubai, Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri
Bonny Light, Nijerya
Saharan Blend, Cezayir
Minas, Endonezya
Tia Juana Light, Venezuella
Istmus, Meksika

Dünyada en büyük kanıtlanmış petrol rezervlerine sahip ülkeler hangileridir?

2004 yılında kanıtlanmış petrol rezervleri en yüksek olan ilk beş ülkenin sıralaması aşağıdadır :

Ülke Kanıtlanmış Rezerv (10 üzeri 9 varil) R/P Oranı
Suudi Arabistan 262.7 67.8
Iran 132.5 88.7
Irak 115.0 >100
Kuveyt 99.0 >100
Birleşik Arap Emirlikleri 97.8 >100

Dünyada en çok petrol üreten ülkeler hangileridir?

2004 yılında en çok petrol üreten ilk beş ülkenin sıralaması aşağıdadır :

Ülke Günlük Üretim (10 üzeri 6 varil)
Suudi Arabistan 10.37
Rusya Federasyonu 9.27
Amerika Birleşik Devletleri 8.69
İran 4.09
Mexico 3.83

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. The organization has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965,[4] and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries.

According to its statutes, one of the principal goals is the determination of the best means for safeguarding the Organization’s interests, individually and collectively. It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations; giving due regard at all times to the interests of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations, and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the petroleum industry.”[5]

OPEC’s influence on the market has been negatively criticized. Several members of OPEC alarmed the world and triggered high inflation across both the developing and developed world when they used oil embargoes in the 1973 oil crisis. OPEC’s ability to control the price of oil has diminished somewhat since then, due to the subsequent discovery and development of large oil reserves in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea, the opening up of Russia, and market modernization. OPEC nations still account for two-thirds of the world’s oil reserves, and, as of March 2008, 35.6% of the world’s oil production, affording them considerable control over the global market. The next largest group of producers, members of the OECD and the Post-Soviet states produced only 23.8% and 14.8%, respectively, of the world’s total oil production.[6] As early as 2003, concerns that OPEC members had little excess pumping capacity sparked speculation that their influence on crude oil prices would begin to slip.
Venezuela was the first country to move towards the establishment of OPEC by approaching Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in 1949, suggesting that they exchange views and explore avenues for regular and closer communications between them.[citation needed] In September 1960, at the initiative of the Venezuelan Energy and Mines minister Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo and the Saudi Arabian Energy and Mines minister Abdullah al-Tariki, the governments of Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela met in Baghdad to discuss ways to increase the price of the crude oil produced by their respective countries.[citation needed] OPEC was founded in Baghdad, triggered by a 1960 law instituted by American President Dwight Eisenhower that forced quotas on Venezuelan and Persian Gulf oil imports in favor of the Canadian and Mexican oil industries.[citation needed] Eisenhower cited national security, land access to energy supplies, at times of war.[citation needed] When this led to falling prices for oil in these regions, Venezuela’s president Romulo Betancourt reacted seeking an alliance with oil producing Arab nations as a preemptive strategy to protect the continuous autonomy and profitability of Venezuela’s natural resource: oil.[citation needed]

As a result, OPEC was founded to unify and coordinate members’ petroleum policies. Original OPEC members include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Between 1960 and 1975, the organization expanded to include Qatar (1961), Indonesia (1962), Libya (1962), the United Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria (1969), and Nigeria (1971). Ecuador and Gabon were members of OPEC, but Ecuador withdrew on December 31, 1992[9] because they were unwilling or unable to pay a $2 million membership fee and felt that they needed to produce more oil than they were allowed to under the OPEC quota. [10] Similar concerns prompted Gabon to follow suit in January 1995 [2]. Angola joined on the first day of 2007. [11] Indonesia reconsidered its membership having become a net importer and being unable to meet its production quota. The United States was a member during its formal occupation of Iraq via the Coalition Provisional Authority.[12] Indicating that OPEC is not averse to further expansion, Mohammed Barkindo, OPEC’s Secretary General, recently asked Sudan to join.[13] Iraq remains a member of OPEC, though Iraqi production has not been a part of any OPEC quota agreements since March 1998.

In May 2008, Indonesia announced that it would leave OPEC when its membership expires at years end. The reason given was that Indonesia is no longer a net exporter of oil.
OPEC Quotas and Production in thousands of barrels per day [25] Country Quota (7/1/05) Production (1/07) Capacity
Algeria 894 1,360 1,430
Angola 1,900 1,700 1,700
Ecuador 520 500 500
Iran 4,110 3,700 3,750
Iraq 1,481
Kuwait 2,247 2,500 2,600
Libya 1,500 1,650 1,700
Nigeria 2,306 2,250 2,250
Qatar 726 810 850
Saudi Arabia 10,099 8,800 10,500
United Arab Emirates 2,444 2,500 2,600
Venezuela 3,225 2,340 2,450
Total 31,422 30,451 32,230


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